The most representative part of the building, which will delight all passers-by but also protect our facility from the weather, is the facade. Of course, if it is appropriately designed and constructed, otherwise it can be a disgraceful showcase of any building…
The elevation, and the facade
You’ve probably heard both terms used interchangeably more than once. Many people (including those connected with the construction industry) consider them as synonyms, but they do not quite mean the same thing.
A façade is called the external surface of all the walls of a building, including the elements on it. In contrast, a façade is only the front part—the most characteristic, stylish one, usually with the main entrance.
Basic methods of façade execution
Traditional plasters – currently somewhat forgotten, but very commonly used several decades ago. They fulfil their basic tasks, such as protection against adverse weather conditions or fire. They also give a final look to our building, but… That’s probably what this look is about.
But one by one. Most often, these types of facades are three-layer plasters.
The first layer is a plaster, no more than 5mm thick, which is the base for the next layer, which is an overlay. This one, in turn, reaches a thickness of even 15mm and is the primary layer of plaster. The whole is crowned with a few millimetres of a smooth finish. It is, of course, the simplest, most common type of plaster finish, but not the only one.
The light wet method is the most commonly used one, which everyone knows. It is designed primarily for two-layer walls. It consists in sticking an insulating material, usually Styrofoam or mineral wool, to a previously prepared (cleaned and primed) base. This layer is strengthened by means of a glass fibre reinforcement mesh, sunk in the adhesive intended for this purpose, and the whole is finished with a thin layer plaster. The light wet method is also often referred to as the light wet method:
BSO – a seamless thermal insulation system, and
ETICS – External Thermal Insulation Composite System.
The light-dry method – how easy it is to figure out does not require water or glue. So how is the insulation material mounted to the wall? Well, on a previously prepared grate. The finishing element can be wood, stone, plastic cladding, etc. In this method, work can be carried out regardless of the prevailing weather conditions.
Division of facades according to the type of finishing.
(a) thin-coat plasters, mainly used in the light-wet method. They are available in a variety of varieties and colours:
– mineral plasters, whose characteristic feature is high vapour permeability, so they are willingly used for thermal insulation made of mineral wool;
– Acrylic plasters, on the other hand, thanks to low water permeability, protect the wall well against moisture. We use on polystyrene foam facades, never on mineral wool;
– silicone and silicate plasters with high resistance to dirt sticking, and rainfall makes this type of facades very well cleaned themselves. But with this “luxury” you have to pay a little more;
b) thick layer plasters, traditionally also called cement and lime plasters. Used for single-layer walls. Not bad durability, good permeability and the need for painting are their basic features. These plasters are described above.
Facades made of brick, usually clinker, which is the external layer of a three-layer partition: Clinker brick, due to its low absorbency, does not absorb moisture and dirt and the use of appropriate mortars will prevent the formation of unsightly efflorescence.
Facades made of wood or materials imitating wood, perfectly fit the house into the natural landscape. Wooden facades require maintenance, which can be a bit troublesome during use, and it also happens that they are twisted or simply crack. An alternative can be composite planks where wood is only one of the components. The cost of such a facade will be rather higher than even in the case of plaster. However, it all depends on what kind of wood we decide on (examples of wood: spruce, larch, cedar).
Stone elevations will be a permanent finishing of the building. We can make them on the whole elevation or only on its fragment. Both natural stones (dolomites, limestone) and artificial stones (concrete elements, stone conglomerates) are used. Stone elevations will be a permanent finishing touch to the building. We can make them on the whole elevation or only on its fragment. Both natural stones (dolomites, limestone) and artificial stones (concrete elements, stone conglomerates) are used.
The topic of the facade, of course, has not been exhausted, because it is impossible to do so either. The construction market is extensive, sweaty and absorbent, thanks to which manufacturers continuously present us with the latest systems and solutions. However, regardless of that, you know the basics well, and now you have just read about them.